Term Paper ID:34616

A brief history of precast concrete that includes uses, types, capabilities, and the impact of new technology on this conventional construction material. The expansion of its uses over time.

3 Pages / 675 Words
5 sources, 7 Citations, MLA Format

Discussion on the use of concrete for building purposes. The following paper talks about using concrete to build homes, commercial buildings bridges, and roads.

650 words (approx. 2.6 pages), 4 sources, 2002, $ 26.95
Admission Essay # 32599

From the Paper
"Commercial construction is defined as "building projects exclusive of residential [single- or two-family home] construction". It is one of the biggest segments of the entire construction industry and is believed to have strengthened the industry in recent years due to rapid and steady growth. The commercial sector has been growing steady for some time now as is evident from market research and reports. Back in 2000, Sinderman wrote: "...the state of the commercial real estate market is strong. The demand for office, industrial and retail buildings remains high, and, as Internet-based companies continue to grow, specialized facilities have become more popular than ever." In 2005, a construction report by McGraw-Hill supported that claim: "The commercial and infrastructure construction segments are providing a lift to the overall construction industry, marking a role reversal from most of the past two or three years. According to October 2004 figures for future construction contracts calculated by McGraw-Hill Construction, Lexington, Mass., overall new construction starts increased 4 percent in October versus September (on a seasonally adjusted basis), with nonresidential and infrastructure construction gaining while the residential sector fell slightly."

This paper describes commercial construction as "building projects exclusive of residential construction," and discusses commercial construction from both an economic point of view and from the point of view of the community. The paper discusses why commercial construction is a boon to the construction business, providing stable work even when residential construction is at a lull. The paper also discusses the complexities of managing commercial construction.

770 words (approx. 3.1 pages), 2 sources, MLA, 2006, $ 27.95
Essay (General) # 68887

From the Paper
"The federal government is the largest owner of real property in the world (Bastianelli, et. al., 1998), so it stands to reason that they spend an enormous amount of money on construction and maintenance of that property. It is difficult to gauge exactly how much the federal government spends on construction annually, but it is noteworthy that the Department of Defense alone planned to award over $10 billion on construction contracts in 2002 (Bush, 2001). Because of this significant amount of construction outsourcing, and the intricacies that go along with construction contracting, the federal government has been justified in developing unique regulations and rules for construction contracts. The federal government, in the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR), defines construction as, "construction, alteration, or repair (including dredging, excavating, and painting) of buildings, structures, or other real property" (FAR 2.101). Determining whether or not something is considered a building or a structure is general straightforward, although there are always exceptions. However, the line defining whether or not something is real property can, at times, be somewhat unclear. The FAR does not provide a definition for real property, but in federal contracts the common legal definition is used, that real property is, "land and all things that are attached to it" (Lectric Law Library, 2003). Though many of the clauses, terms and conditions, and rules applicable to federal construction contracts are the same, or similar, to those that are used on federal contracts for supplies, there are a number of differences in the nature of contracting for construction that have caused the federal government to create separate laws that deal specifically with federal construction contracts. One of the major differences is that construction contracts are performed on Government property. Because of this, construction contractors are subject to a great deal more in the area of inspections and general surveillance on their contracts (Abernathy and Kelleher, 1976). Construction contracts typically have much more paperwork than federal supply contracts. On construction contracts, a contractor is required to file daily reports showing that they complied with all the unique construction regulations, including safety, schedules, and submittals of material samples (Arnavas, 2001, 27.4.a.). Construction contracts are subject to much greater scrutiny on performance than supply contracts, as detailed analysis and explanation of any deficiencies are reported to contractors and contractors have the right to respond. Past performance information is also kept on construction contracts for six years, where the norm on supply contracts is three years (Arnavas, 2001, 27.4.a). Other differences that will be the focus of this paper include contract types, labor laws, specifications, payments, delays, and differing site conditions."

Federal contracts for construction, while similar in many respects to other types of federal contracts, have some unique aspects that have caused the federal government to create a system of rules within the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) specific to construction contracts. The federal government has been justified in creating these rules separate from those that apply specifically to supply and service contracts. This paper focuses on some of the unique rules and regulations that apply to federal construction contracts, including those related to contract types, labor laws, specifications, payments, delays, and differing site conditions.

3,737 words (approx. 14.9 pages), 15 sources, APA, 2003, $ 103.95
Essay (General) # 53329

From the Paper
"The work of Andrew Meyerson (2005) entitled: "The Dollars and Cents of Green Construction" states that green construction and design can not only save energy but also can result in monetary savings in the areas of: (1) Tax breaks and rebates; (2) Lower construction costs; (3) Reduction or elimination of the need for heating and air-conditioning equipment and the associated costs of purchase, maintenance and electricity; (4) Reduction in energy and water bills by as much as fifty-percent; (5) Increase in labor productivity, retail customer sales and apartment rental prices; and (6) Protection of operating budgets from increases in energy prices. (Meyerson, 2005, p. 2) Meyerson relates that practically all states offer incentives in the form of reduction of taxes for construction that is friendly to the environment. (2005, p. 4) Additionally in green construction projects where a pre-existing structure is on the construction site, cost savings may be realized through reuse of as much of the existing structure as possible. Additionally, is it necessary to be aware of the attitudes that serve as drivers of the choice of clients to use the firm and added to this is the fact "that commercial 'green buildings' outperform their conventional counterparts across a wide variety of metrics, including energy savings, occupancy rates, sale price and rental rates, another very practical and often times overlooked data for improving the cash flow of the client is the "energy efficient commercial building tax deductions.""

This paper discusses green building construction and points out that this design saves energy as well as money. The paper explains that green building construction is vital and is a determinative of project success. The paper also explains that the individual needs to take the initiative in addressing construction design and development and associated costs as well as funding, marketing and sales. In addition, the paper tells us that green building construction holds great financial promise for the future. A graph of taxes by state is included with the paper.

1,605 words (approx. 6.4 pages), 3 sources, APA, 2009, $ 52.95
Case Study # 114233

An 8 page paper which deals with the subject of lightweight concrete, in general. This fairly recently discovered concrete is most commonly known as autoclaved aerated concrete and possesses many unique qualities, as well as capabilities. The processes involved in making this concrete are discussed as well as some of its unique characteristics. It is being used for whole house construction, as well as for building and repairing bridges. It is a wonderful new technology that is a welcome addition to the world of construction. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

(8 Pages, 95.6 $ (USD) )

. brick. On the first floor, there are three bedrooms and the bathroom and the toilet separate by timber frame and gyros. The roof if made by tile roof that keeps cool all year round. Because the owner is a builder, so all the labor is done by his tradesmen friend to reduce the cost. The site is quite good location in the quiet area and have full sunshine direct in the morning and afternoon. Slop of site is quiet gentle about 2% only. The road in front is quiet, make easy to exit out or entry in. The design of the building is good design, easy to access warm in winter and cold in summer.

8 pages (2068 words)

to: adjust setting time or hardening, reduce water demand, increase workability, intentionally entrain air, and adjust other concrete properties (Kosmatka and Panarese 1-2). After completion of proper proportioning, batching, mixing, placing, consolidating, finishing, and curing, hardened concrete becomes a strong, noncombustible, durable, abrasion-resistant, and practically impermeable building material that requires little or no maintenance. Concrete is also an excellent building material, because it can be formed into a wide variety of shapes, colors, and textures for use in almost unlimited number of applications. Works Cited ACement and concrete.@ The 1996 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia.

5 pages (1349 words)

This 3 page paper provides an overview of this concern in civli engineering. Different types of reinforced concrete design are discussed. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

In the mid 19th century, Le Corbusier designed buildings that relied upon the raw concrete and the use of light to emphasize the beauty of the structure. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of one of his structures, Notre-Dame-du-Haut, a chapel set high above the village of Ronchamp, and an excellent example of the nontraditional use of light and raw concrete. The paper discusses the location of the chapel, its functionality as a church, and its strange shape. The paper also includes diagrams, sketches, and photographs of Notre-Dame-du-Haut.

2,607 words; 9 sources; MLA; $ 78.95

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